The period from 1930 to the 1960s was one of rapid change and maturation for Australian literature, dictated primarily by the economic, political and social turmoil caused by events both globally and locally. The changing social and political landscape resulted in varied literary responses, including the socialist realism that emerged during the Great Depression, the influences of modernism and vitalism during the same era, and nationalism during and following World War II. The Cold War period saw an unprecedented level of political influence in the literary community, so these decades brought diversity, growth, challenges and opportunities to Australian literature. Literature’s social value was challenged by political events and anti-intellectualism, yet in some sense these hindrances also encouraged new developments to occur. The journey towards a more diverse and autonomous literature is one that occurred as Australia’s political and cultural values and institutions were also in flux. Australian literature emerged from this period with a critical view of society, increased study within the universities and a new level of global recognition, which helped to assuage Australia’s cultural cringe.