A comparison of Grendel and Macbeth

The characters of Grendel and Macbeth are quite different representations of evil in the respective works, Beowulf and Macbeth. Macbeth is a human character who is given agency and chooses to take an evil path, presented in a highly psychologised and even sympathetic way. In contrast, Grendel as “kindred of Cain” (106) has some human lineage, but is clearly represented as being monstrous by nature, with no potential to choose otherwise.

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Notes on Macbeth (2.3.88-115)

Lines 89-116 from Act 2, Scene 3 of Macbeth open with Macbeth entering King Duncan’s chamber and falsely decrying the monarch’s murder, claiming that “from this instant there’s nothing serious in mortality” (2.3.89-90). Macbeth describes Duncan as the very personification of “renown and grace” (2.3.91), implying that life is empty without him, attempting to soften the bloody sight of Duncan’s corpse by metaphorically describing his blood as “the wine of life” (2.3.92). Shakespeare has constructed the dialogue in this passage in a way that highlights Macbeth’s duplicity at this moment directly following the murder, but before remorse and grief have begun to take their toll upon his psyche.

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Notes on Antony and Cleopatra (III.13.183-206)

This scene is the ending of the third act of Antony and Cleopatra and follows their defeat at sea. Both Antony and Cleopatra have sent messages to Caesar. Antony has requested to live in Egypt, or if not to be left in peace to live as a private citizen in Athens. Cleopatra submits to Caesar’s will and requests only that her heirs may inherit the throne of Egypt. Caesar has rejected Antony’s request and promised Cleopatra “shall then have courtesy” if she betrays Antony and banishes him. Antony initially believes that Cleopatra is considering this, but when the two speak they reconfirm their love and intention to fight Caesar once more, which is where this passage begins.

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A discussion of how the supernatural and spiritual are represented in Macbeth and Paradise Lost

Throughout history, English texts have often utilised supernatural or spiritual themes as core plot elements. For the reader, an interpretation of such a text may view these either as literal aspects of the story, or as semantic devices used by the author to stimulate deeper levels of meaning. The 17th century texts of Macbeth (Shakespeare) and Paradise Lost (Milton) use the supernatural and spiritual respectively to shape the narrative. In addition, these are both canonical works that have been widely discussed and interpreted by readers over a long period, and are still actively studied today. For this reason, these two works provide definitive examples of how the supernatural and spiritual can be represented and how this representation can be used to create narrative meaning for the reader. Macbeth tells a story of human temptation and weakness using the supernatural as a key plot element, whereas Paradise Lost is an epic in which the spiritual intertext of the Bible is used to comment upon the nature of humankind, society and politics.

The tragedy of Macbeth contains a number of supernatural elements and the foremost of these is the three witches. The play opens with the poetic verse of the witches and this places their supernatural influence at the centre of events. Macbeth’s first line, “so foul and fair a day I have not seen” (1.3.39) is a direct echo of the witches’ opening chant, “fair is foul and foul is fair” (1.1.11). According to Kranz, the effect of this echoing is that “a close and mysterious connection between the hero and supernatural hags is established well before the actual staged temptation of the former” (346). Shakespeare’s placement of the witches at the forefront of events is key to shaping readers’ interpretation of the text.

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