Intertextuality refers to the relationships between texts and can take many forms, both overt and covert. In Mrs. Dalloway, Woolf employs overt intertextuality to create meaning, reinforce the text’s themes and ultimately to place her work within a cultural and literary context. In addition, covert forms of intertextuality are present in the form of narrative structure, parody and indirect allusion to other works. The intertextuality in Mrs Dalloway can further be viewed as a covert form of metafiction, because Woolf’s allusions to other fictional works emphasise the fictional nature of her own text, causing the reader to question the purpose of their reading and the meaning that can be derived from it. McEwan’s Atonement utilises the same forms of intertextuality, alongside an overt metafiction that is central to the novel’s plot, and thus raises the same questions. The progression from intertextuality in Woolf’s modernist work to the postmodern technique of self-referential metafiction in McEwan’s novel begs both readers and writers to question the very nature of fiction, the place of the novel in our culture, and the pleasure, meaning and purpose that can be derived from it.
Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremonyand Barbara Kingsolver’s Animal Dreamsare both novels of the American Southwest that explore themes of shame, alienation, psychological trauma, recovery and people’s relationship to their natural environment. Silko’s novel is written in a style that emphasises the importance of storytelling in the traditions of Pueblo Indian people, while Kingsolver’s dual mode of narration highlights Codi’s traumatised and unreliable memory. Figurative language is used by both authors to establish symbolic links of meaning between natural imagery and the psychological trauma and journey to recovery faced by their protagonists.
Angela Carter’s The Bloody Chamber: And Other Storiesis a postmodern work, in which the various stories revise existing fairy tales, using this intertextuality as a mechanism for revealing, parodying and challenging the cultural norms which are embedded in the original texts. In a similar vein, Ian McEwan’s novel Atonementreflects upon the very nature of both reading and writing, while also delivering social commentary. The theme of fear is used in both of these texts as a means of highlighting social inequality. Fear, or the lack thereof effects an emotional response in the reader while also raising questions about the very nature of our reading and writing practice, and how it relates to society at large.
The narrative fiction of the late 19th and early 20th century demonstrated a marked shift from traditional plot-driven social realism towards a more nuanced form of psychological realism. This global trend was clearly present in the American literature of the period, and also coincided with an influx of freshly wealthy American citizens holidaying and living in Europe with their new money and attitudes. Although occurring before the modern feminism of the mid-20th century, this period also represented a marked shift from the restrictions of Victorian England and European codes of behaviour towards increased economic and sexual freedom for women, particularly in America. Both Daisy Miller and Tender is the Night are works which, though written by men and preoccupied with their male protagonists, also use the subtle techniques of psychological realism to portray the complex moral and sexual challenges faced by American women abroad in Europe.
In the narrative fiction of the 19th century, many writers achieved a form of realism using an authorial third person narrative voice and conveying meaning through description, plot and dialogue. Societal changes, psychiatry and modernity in the 20th century brought new modes of thinking and an increased emphasis on psychological realism, driven by the idea that a character’s inner thoughts and perspective reflect human reality more accurately than external observation. Death in Venice, Mrs Dalloway and The Great Gatsby demonstrate that psychological realism can be achieved using a variety of narrative techniques: free indirect discourse, stream-of-consciousness and complex symbolism allow Death in Venice and Mrs Dalloway to portray the internal mental state of their characters, while the first person limited narration of The Great Gatsby foregrounds the protagonist’s perspective and emphasises the true unknowability of other people.